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#079 Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia | Axel Montagne, Ph.D.
Dr. Axel Montagne is a chancellor's fellow and group leader at the UK Dementia Research Institute at the University of Edinburgh Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences. His group aims to understand how, when, and where critical components of the blood-brain barrier become dysfunctional preceding dementia and in the earliest stages of age-related cognitive decline. With this knowledge, they hope to develop precise treatments targeting brain vasculature to protect brain function. More importantly his work, and that of his colleagues, provide a critical lens through which to view the contributions of vascular dysfunction (or, conversely, vascular health – if we choose to preserve it) as a critical common thread in dementia and neurodegeneration. In this episode, we discuss: (00:00) Introduction to Dr. Axel Montagne (11:44) What dementias have in common (12:42) The importance of preserving small blood vessels (in the brain) (13:38) Changes in the blood-brain barrier in aging that cause "leaking" (15:11) Predicting cognitive decline early with biomarkers – an opportunity for intervention? (16:32) Why targeting amyloid isn’t enough (18:54) The impact of the APOE4 genotype on brain vasculature (24:19) The cause of white matter damage in the brain (33:47) Why the loss of omega-3 transport affects pericytes (35:25) The role of exercise in prevention of blood-brain barrier dysfunction (35:45) Why high heart rates during exercise preserve brain function (36:49) The role of exercise in preserving vision health (40:17) Why leaky vessels damage myelin and the brain (45:31) Can you have more than one type of dementia? (47:54) Does the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier cause “type 3 diabetes"? (54:03) Why omega-3 may prevent detachment of pericytes (1:14:35) Why a hepatitis drug restored cognition in APOE4 mice (1:19:39) Why blood-brain barrier disruption results in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (1:25:14) Why lifetime hypertension increases dementia risk (1:37:13) Effects of obesity on blood-brain barrier leakage Watch this episode on YouTube Show notes are available by clicking here Join over 300,000 people and get the latest distilled information straight to your inbox several times per month: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/newsletter Become a FoundMyFitness premium member to get access to exclusive episodes, emails, live Q+A’s with Rhonda and more: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/premium Learn more about the premium podcast The Aliquot: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/aliquot
#078 Resistance training for time efficiency, body composition, and maximum hypertrophy | Brad Schoenfeld, Ph.D.
Dr. Brad Schoenfeld is a professor at Lehman College in the Bronx, in New York City. His research primarily focuses on muscle adaptations to strength training, muscle hypertrophy. Publishing over 300 studies in the field of exercise and sports nutrition as a scientist, Brad began his career as a competitive bodybuilder and personal trainer. In this episode, we discuss: (00:00) Introduction to Dr. Brad Schoenfeld (05:26) Why should we lift weights? (06:56) Why building bone matters (11:33) How to lift in old age (13:45) Why to lift while young (especially women) (16:21) Should children lift weights? (17:05) Does lifting stunt growth? (19:48) How to change body composition (27:22) Protein requirements (29:19) How to calculate protein needs (36:54) Protein per meal - what's the right amount? (38:18) Does time-restricted eating undermine hypertrophy? (43:19) Anabolic window: myths vs. reality (46:15) Total daily protein intake (54:49) Why aging affects muscle power (loss of type II fibers) (57:52) Power training vs. strength (59:20) Benefits of explosive power training (fall prevention) (1:03:18) How to power train with plyometrics (1:03:58) Training to failure (is it important?) (1:09:59) Rest in between sets (is it needed?) (1:11:12) Number of sets per week (1:22:31) Tips for recovery (1:33:41) Should you get sore from exercise? (1:36:47) What can you do for soreness? (without blunting hypertrophy) (1:40:16) Does aerobic exercise undermine resistance training? (1:44:46) Resistance training for endurance athletes (1:46:33) Can stretching increase muscle growth? (1:51:06) Is yoga a type of resistance training? (1:53:37) Blood-flow restriction training (1:58:37) What is Brad's routine? Watch this episode on YouTube Show notes are available by clicking here Join over 300,000 people and get the latest distilled information straight to your inbox weekly: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/newsletter Become a FoundMyFitness premium member to get access to exclusive episodes, emails, live Q+A’s with Rhonda and more: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/premium Learn more about the premium podcast The Aliquot: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/aliquot
#077 Rewriting genomes to eradicate disease and aging | Dr. George Church
George Church, Ph.D. is a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School and of health sciences and technology at both Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Church played an instrumental role in the Human Genome Project and is widely recognized as one of the premier scientists in the fields of gene editing technology and synthetic biology. In this episode, we discuss: (00:00) Introduction to Dr. George Church (07:13) History of the Human Genome Project (15:20) Manufacturing cell phones (with biology) (17:34) Genome Project-Write (20:03) Writing a human Y chromosome (from scratch) (20:48) What if you could eliminate viral disease? (22:51) De-extinction and reinstating lost traits and genes (27:06) The Vertebrate Genomes Project (29:47) AlphaFold and other AI tools (41:27) CRISPR vs. Base Editing (emerging tools of genetic engineering) (49:40) Why multiplex editing will change the world (52:18) Molecular flight recorder (53:31) Preventing viral spillover and enhancing livestock (57:40) PCSK9 gene therapy for cholesterol (1:00:30) Is aging an evolved program? (1:05:21) Treating aging with a combination gene treatment (1:09:04) Does animal research help us understand human aging? (1:11:40) Human organoids as a model and therapeutic (1:13:34) Could engineered transplant organs become better than the originals? (1:16:17) Embryo editing controversy (1:28:41) Gene editing for space travel (1:30:40) Can synthetic biology alleviate poverty? (1:34:07) Is in vitro fertilization and embryo selection practically similar to editing? (1:39:12) The occasional cost of brilliance (1:45:45) Eradicating disease with Gene Drive (1:48:55) Technologies to solve Lyme disease (1:51:57) Dr. Church's experience with narcolepsy as a bridge to creative insights (2:00:42) Why George encoded his book in DNA Watch this episode on YouTube Show notes are available by clicking here Join over 300,000 people and get the latest distilled information straight to your inbox weekly: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/newsletter Become a FoundMyFitness premium member to get access to exclusive episodes, emails, live Q+A’s with Rhonda and more: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/premium Learn more about the premium podcast The Aliquot: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/aliquot
#076 Building Muscle with Resistance Exercise and Reassessing Protein Intake | Stuart Phillips, PhD
Stuart Phillips, PhD, is a professor of kinesiology at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where he also serves as the director of the Physical Activity Centre of Excellence. His research centers on the roles exercise and nutrition play in influencing human skeletal muscle protein turnover and how these lifestyle factors influence body composition, especially as we age. In this episode, we discuss: (00:00) Introduction to Dr. Stuart Phillips (07:16) Why muscle is important for longevity (14:34) Is the importance of muscle mass (per se) overstated? (16:48) Is the RDA on protein too low? (19:03) Minimum vs. optimal protein intake (for athletes) (19:29) Why older adults need more protein (24:52) Caloric restriction vs. higher protein for aging (28:04) What is a catabolic crisis? (29:40) Effects of space flight on muscle (36:16) Practical tips for protein intake (39:34) Protein timing and the anabolic window (41:27) Most important factors for hypertrophy (43:57) Should we supplement leucine? (45:46) Does plant protein support hypertrophy? (56:30) Causes of anabolic resistance (58:22) What types of exercise and how much? (01:06:56) Protein and rest as tools for recovery (01:08:14) Mechanisms of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown (01:08:31) Does rapamycin inhibit hypertrophy? (01:13:07) What is Dr. Phillips doing to age well? (01:15:25) Hormonal responses to exercise (01:17:09) Sex differences in hypertrophy (01:19:38) Effect of menopause on muscle (01:20:03) Do testosterone boosters work? (01:21:56) Does growth hormone improve muscle? (01:26:30) Androgen replacement therapy (benefits vs. drawbacks) (01:31:17) Mental health benefits of exercise (01:31:54) Anti-catabolic effects of heat (01:38:19) Molecular causes of sarcopenia (01:42:35) Anti-catabolic effects of omega-3 (01:48:57) Brain and muscle effects of creatine Watch this episode on YouTube Show notes and transcript Join over 300,000 people and get the latest distilled information straight to your inbox weekly: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/newsletter Become a FoundMyFitness premium member to get access to exclusive episodes, emails, live Q+A’s with Rhonda and more: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/crowdsponsor
#075 Intestinal Permeability: the Bacterial link to Aging, Brain Barrier Dysfunction & Metabolic Disorder
The intestinal barrier serves as a gatekeeper to the human body. The loss of the health and integrity of this barrier influences multiple aspects of human health – including cardiometabolic function, neurological health, behavior, and more – in surprising and unexpected ways. One of these ways involves lipopolysaccharide, or LPS, a bacterial product that arises in the intestine, and its interaction with far distal tissues and organs via the induction of immune mediators. Dr. Rhonda Patrick was the keynote speaker for the Metabolic Health Summit, held May 5 – 8, 2022, in Santa Barbara, California. Her presentation described the role that intestinal permeability and bacterial products play in aging, inflammation, and chronic disease. In this episode, we discuss: (00:00) Introduction (08:12) Atherosclerosis (13:49) Brain (16:07) Circulating LPS and behavior (19:05) Toll-like receptors and inflammation (24:00) Factors that affect intestinal permeability (30:10) Alcohol (32:07) Gluten (35:21) Butyrate and dietary fiber (37:48) Dietary fat (42:21) Biomarkers of intestinal permeability (43:11) Omega-3 fatty acids (50:02) Q&A Show notes and video LEARN MORE: Coinciding with this release, you can now find a variety of deep resources on the FoundMyFitness website for all of the topics covered in this episode. Learn about the blood-brain barrier Learn about intestinal permeability Learn about toll-like receptors Learn about cerebral small vessel disease SUPPORT THE CHANNEL: Many of these magnificent resources exist directly as a result of our premium members. As a premium member, listeners get access to our exclusive podcast The Aliquot, monthly Q&As, a special summary of scientific research every other week called the Science Digest, and more. Sign up to become a premium member and nurture the existence of the FoundMyFitness platform. Become a member